Thursday, April 23, 2009

F-22A Raptor Advanced Tactical Fighter Aircraft US Air Force

The F-22A Raptor advanced tactical fighter entered service with the US Air Force in December 2005. The USAF requirement is for a fighter to replace the F-15, with emphasis on agility, stealth and range.

F-22A development

By 1990 Lockheed Martin, teamed with Boeing and General Dynamics, had built and flown the demonstration prototype aircraft, designated YF-22. The first F-22 fighter aircraft was unveiled in April 1997 and was given the name Raptor.
In September 2002, the USAF decided to redesignate the aircraft F/A-22 to reflect its multi-mission capability in ground attack as well as air-to-air roles. The aircraft's designation was changed again to F-22A when it achieved initial operating capability (IOC) in December 2005.
The decision to proceed to low-rate initial production (LRIP) was authorised in August 2001 and Lockheed Martin delivered 49 aircraft under LRIP contracts. Initial operational test and evaluation began in April 2004 and was successfully completed in February 2005.
A further 60 Raptors were ordered in July 2007, bringing total ordered to 183, with production to 2011. The USAF has a total requirement of 381 aircraft but funding may not be made available for more than 183. By July 2008, 122 aircraft had been delivered.
The first operational wing of F-22A Raptors was Langley AFB in Virginia with a fleet of 40 aircraft. Elmendorff AFB, Alaska, became the second in August 2007 and Holloman AFB, New Mexico the third in June 2008. Operational Raptors will also be based at Hickam AFB Hawaii.
The F-22 achieved full operational capability in December 2007.
In February 2007, 12 F-22 aircraft began the first overseas deployment of the fighter at Kadena Air Base in Japan. The aircraft returned in May 2007.
During flight tests, the F-22A has demonstrated the ability to 'supercruise', flying at sustained speeds of over Mach 1.5 without the use of afterburner.
Lockheed Martin has put forward proposals for a fighter-bomber version of the F-22, the FB-22, which will have larger delta wings, longer range and the ability to carry an external weapons payload of 4,500kg and total weapons payload of 15,000kg.

Raptor design

The F-22 construction is 39% titanium, 24% composite, 16% aluminium and 1% thermoplastic by weight. Titanium is used for its high strength-to-weight ratio in critical stress areas, including some of the bulkheads, and also for its heat-resistant qualities in the hot sections of the aircraft.
Carbon-fibre composites have been used for the fuselage frame, the doors, intermediate spars on the wings, and for the honeycomb sandwich construction skin panels.
F-22 cockpit
The cockpit is fitted with hands-on throttle and stick control (HOTAS). The cockpit has six color liquid crystal displays. The Kaiser Electronics projection primary multifunction display provides a plan view of the air and ground tactical situation including threat identity, threat priority and tracking information.

Two displays provide communication, navigation, identification and flight information. Three secondary displays show air and ground threats, stores management and air threat information.
A BAE Systems head-up display (HUD) shows target status, weapon status, weapon envelopes and shoot cues. A video camera records data on the HUD for post-mission analysis.


A variant of the M61A2 Vulcan cannon is installed internally above the right air intake. The General Dynamics linkless ammunition handling system holds 480 rounds of 20mm ammunition and feeds the gun at a rate of 100 rounds a second.
The F-22 has four hardpoints on the wings, each rated to carry 2,270kg, which can carry AIM-120A AMRAAM or external fuel tanks. The Raptor has three internal weapon bays. The main weapons bay can carry six AMRAAM AIM-120C missiles or two AMRAAM and two 1,000lb GBU-32 joint direct attack munition (JDAM).
The bay is fitted with the EDO Corp. LAU-142/A AVEL AMRAAM vertical ejection launcher which is a pneumatic-ejection system controlled by the stores management system. Raytheon AMRAAM air-to-air missile is an all-weather short- to medium-range radar-guided fire-and-forget missile, with a range of 50nm. The side bays can each be loaded with one Lockheed Martin / Raytheon AIM-9M or AIM-9X Sidewinder all-aspect short-range air-to-air missile.
The GPS-guided, Boeing small diameter bomb (SDB) is being integrated on the F/A-22 in February 2007. Eight SDBs can be carried with two AMRAAM missiles.

The AN/APG-77 radar has been developed for the F-22 by the Electronic Sensors and Systems Division of Northrop Grumman and Raytheon Electronic Systems. The radar uses an active electronically scanned antenna array of 2,000 transmitter / receive modules, which provides agility, low radar cross-section and wide bandwidth. Deliveries of the AN/APG-77 began in May 2005.

The aircraft's electronic warfare system includes a radar warning receiver and a BAE Systems information & electronic warfare systems (IEWS) (formerly Lockheed Martin Sanders) missile launch detector.

Navigation and communications

"The F-22 advanced tactical fighter is powered by two Pratt and Whitney F119-100 engines."
The TRW CNI communications, navigation and identification system includes an intra-flight datalink, joint tactical information distribution system (JTIDS) link and an identification friend or foe (IFF) system.
Boeing is responsible for mission software and avionics integration. The aircraft has a Northrop Grumman (formerly Litton) LTN-100G laser gyroscope inertial reference, a global positioning system and a microwave landing system.


The F-22 is powered by two Pratt and Whitney F119-100 engines. The F119-100 is a low bypass after-burning turbofan engine providing 156kN thrust. The F119 is the first fighter aircraft engine equipped with hollow wide chord fan blades which are installed in the first fan stage.
Thrust vectoring is controlled by a Hamilton Standard dual redundant full authority digital engine control (FADEC). The FADEC is integrated with the flight control computers in the BAE Systems flight controls vehicle management system.

Saturday, April 18, 2009

CVN68 - Nimitz Class Aircraft Carrier "Sustained independent operations"

CVN68 - Nimitz Class Aircraft Carrier
Aircraft carriers provide a wide range of possible response for the National Command Authority. They provide a credible, sustainable, independent forward presence and conventional deterrence in peacetime, operate as the cornerstone of joint/allied maritime expeditionary forces in times of crisis, and operate and support aircraft attacks on enemies, protect friendly forces and engage in sustained independent operations in war.

The aircraft carrier continues to be the centerpiece of the forces necessary for forward presence. Whenever there has been a crisis, the first question has been: "Where are the carriers?" Carriers support and operate aircraft that engage in attacks on airborne, afloat, and ashore targets that threaten free use of the sea; and engage in sustained operations in support of other forces.

Aircraft carriers are deployed worldwide in support of U.S. interests and commitments. They can respond to global crises in ways ranging from peacetime presence to full-scale war. Together with their on-board air wings, the carriers have vital roles across the full spectrum of conflict. The Nimitz-class carriers, eight operational and two under construction, are the largest warships in the world. USS Nimitz (CVN 68) was the first to undergo its initial refueling during a 33-month Refueling Complex Overhaul at Newport News Shipbuilding in Newport News, Va., in 1998. The next generation of carrier, CVN 21, the hull number will be CVN 78, is programmed to start construction in 2007 and is slated to be placed in commission in 2014 to replace USS Enterprise (CVN 65 which will be over its 50-year mark. CVN 79 is programmed to begin construction in 2012 and to be placed in commission in 2018, replacing USS John F. Kennedy (CV 67) in her 50th year.
Centerpiece and Flagship of the Navy's "Forward....from the sea..." power projection mission. Hosting 85 aircraft and carrying enough supplies to sustain her Air Wing and escorts for 90 days, the modern U.S. Navy aircraft carrier, in effect, represents a mobile piece of American real estate, capable of projecting the power and influence of the United States any where in the world. With the end of the Cold War the navy carrier mission has shifted from maintaining Sea Lanes of Communication and confronting the Soviet Navy to addressing regional threats to U.S. interests. While still fully capable of dominating the open seas, the Navy, through the Carrier Battle Groups, now focuses on supporting near shore "littoral zone" and inshore U.S. ground operations. While the Ticonderoga class Guided Missile Cruisers and Arleigh Burke class Guided Missile Destroyers possess an awsome amount of firepower, they lack the flexability of the carrier air wing. By swaping out and adjusting the number of aircraft aboard, the aircraft carrier can tailor its air wing to meet mission needs. The Nimitz-class carriers, eight operational and one under construction, are the largest, most powerful, warships in the world. The USS Nimitz (CVN 68) underwent its first refueling during a 33-month Refueling Complex Overhaul at Newport News Shipbuilding in Newport News, Va., in 1998.

Thursday, April 16, 2009

AS 565MB Panther Naval Helicopter, Europe

The naval variant of the Eurocopter AS 565MB Panther is in service in Ireland, the United Arab Emirates, the Icelandic Coast Guard, the armed forces of Saudi Arabia, the Israeli Defence Force, the Mexican Navy, the Chinese Navy and the French Navy. Armed and unarmed versions of the army variant of the helicopter are in service with the Brazilian Army.
The Bulgarian Navy ordered six AS 565MB helicopters in January 2005, to be delivered in 2010/2011.

The Panther first flew in 1982 and the current MB naval variant entered service in 1997. It has a maximum take-off weight of 4,300kg and can be configured for search and rescue, patrol and surveillance, anti-submarine and anti-surface-ship roles. Armed with four missiles in an anti-surface-ship role the helicopter has a range of action of 250km. In the search and rescue role the helicopter has a radius of action of 240km and can carry six survivors. The mission endurance is four and a half hours.


Crew: 2 pilots
Troop Capacity: 10 seats or four stretchers


Rotor Diameter: 11.94m
Tail Rotor Diameter: 1.10m
Overall Length (Rotors Turning): 13.73m
Fuselage: 11.63m
Width Blades Folded: 3.25 m
Width Armed Helicopter: 4.20m
Height to Top of Rotor Head: 3.47m
Height to Top of Fin: 4.06m

Empty Weight: 2,302kg
Maximum Weight: 4,300kg
Sling Load Capacity: 1,600kg

Never Exceed Speed: 295km/h
Maximum Range of Action, 4 Missiles, 250km
Maximum Range of Action, 2 Missiles, 278km
Maximum Range SAR Mission: 240km
Maximum Range on Standard Fuel : 820km
Endurance with Standard Tanks: 4 hours 30 minutes

Type: 2 x Turbomeca Arriel 2C
Thrust: 635kW each
Cabin Dimensions:
Length: 2.30m
Width: 1.92m
Height: 1.16m
Volume: 6.6m²

Wednesday, April 8, 2009

The Future Assault Rifle "Barrett REC7 - M468"

Apparently, the M4 Carbine or the M16 aren’t good enough for the grunts on the field. This isn’t really a new revelation either. Let’s face it, since day 1 of the adoption of the M16 during Vietnam, the M16 hasn’t exactly been everyone’s favorite assualt rifle. In fact, it has been regarded by some as a killer of US troops, leaving them stuck in firefights without effective stopping power and jammed rounds. Never fear though young GIs and military buffs, the civilian weapons manufacturing sector is listening. Barrett Firearm’s answer? Let’s give them what they want.
Greater range, 50% increased stopping power, ability to fit into the current modular makeup of existing M16 component parts. Basically, Barrett knows how to get an invention considered by a buyer. Hearing the voice of the GI, military procurement officers sit around and think, “What can I do about this problem, and is it going to cost me an arm and a leg?” These posed questions are answered in the design of the Barrett REC7 assault rifle. This rifle hasn’t reached operational status yet, but Barrett firearms took into consideration some key aspects of rifle design and selling points with the development of this rifle (conveniently mentioned in the opening sentence of this paragraph). All key aspects overlooked by other ambitious projects with the aim to replace the M16. Rifles such as the OICW and the Heckler and Koch XM-8 are examples of attempts to completely redesign the rifle, which also come packaged with enormous costs and long-run expenses for spare parts.

Barrett said, “Hey, I can make a rifle that is built on existing parts already used in the M4 and M16, and deliver the results the military wants.” Now, we can only wait and see if this bad boy will ultimately be chosen as the next generation rifle for the armed forces, but until then, we can watch Mack talk about the Barrett REC7 assault rifle and demonstrate it’s superb capabilities. Enjoy.

Monday, April 6, 2009

French SSK Andrasta Coastal Submarine

Key Data
Complement 19 crew, plus 2 passengers and 6 divers
Overall Length 48.8m
Surfaced Displacement 855t
Diving Depth Over 200m
Maximum Submerged Speed Over 15kt
High-Speed Autonomy 3 hours
Submerged Endurance Up to 5 days

Full specifications
The 19-crew, 855t displacement, Andrasta submarine, announced by DCNS in September 2008, has been optimised for littoral operations in coastal waters, but remains a formidable adversary in blue (deep) water environments. The submarine is named after Andrasta, the Celtic goddess of war whose name means victorious or invincible. The prime contractor, DCNS, considers that the Andrasta has no equivalent for littoral missions in terms of manoeuvrability and stealth.
The submarine design draws heavily on the proven configuration and systems adopted for the Scorpene family and has about 70% commonality with the Scorpene. The Andrasta surfaced displacement is 855t compared to the 1,790t to 2,010t displacement of the Scorpene. The submarine incorporates the same level of safety, stealth signatures and systems integration as the Scorpene.

The Andrasta can lurk on the seabed in coastal waters where the water depth is typically less than 100m. At a speed of 4kt the range is more than 3,000nm and more than 1,800nm at 8kt.
Andrasta is being presented to world markets at about half the cost of attack submarines such as the Scorpene. The Andrasta design can incorporate extra performance options which are not mandatory for littoral missions but which customer countries may require, without degrading the submarine’s efficiency.
For specials operations, the Andrasta has a deployment airlock for combat swimmers, electronic warfare and intelligence gathering systems.

Andrasta missions
The submarine missions cover anti-submarine warfare, anti-surface warfare, intelligence gathering, special operations, offensive mine mooring, covert tracking of illegal activities, single ship operations and cooperative operations with other ships or maritime assets. The Andrasta is equipped to communicate easily with other assets and command centres.

The double-hull structure gives good survivability and surfaced sea keeping characteristics. An X-configuration rudder has independently operated surfaces for a high level of manoeuvrability including a small turning radius.
The small hull helps contribute to the submarine's stealth characteristics. The submarine has a diving depth to 200m and a submerged endurance of five days. It also has a very low acoustic and visual signature.

Command and control
The Andrasta is equipped with the DCNS SUBTICS submarine tactical integrated combat system. SUBTICS systems are in operation aboard Scorpene submarines of the Chilean Navy and Agosta 90B submarines for the Pakistan Navy
The combat management system is integrated with the sonar and other sensors (optical, optronic, electronic support measures, radar) and carries out the location and identification of vessels, target tracking, tactical analysis, decision making, action management, exchange of tactical data via datalinks, the control of weapons systems and engagement of targets.
"Andrasta's double-hull structure gives good survivability and surfaced sea keeping characteristics."
The submarine is equipped with high-precision navigation and surveillance systems for operation in littoral waters. Surveillance missions can be successfully carried out while the submarine is at rest on the seabed.

The Andrasta can accommodate new-generation heavyweight torpedoes such as the Black Shark, anti-ship missiles such as the Exocet SM-39 and a mine-laying system. The torpedoes and missiles are stored and carried in the six forward torpedo tubes. The small hull size of the submarine does not accommodate torpedoes and missiles for reload.

Special forces
The Andrasta submarines, which can carry two passengers plus a team of six divers, can be deployed for special forces missions which gives the Andrasta an enhanced attack capability comparable to larger submarines. The submarine is fitted with a lock-out / lock-in chamber for combat swimmers.

Friday, April 3, 2009

Small Diameter Bomb - GBU-39

The GBU-39 Small Diameter Bomb - the future of ultra-surgical air strikes.
Since the days of the first Gulf War, when it became clear to the world that precision air strikes would be the “go to” option for the opening rounds of nearly any theater scale operations, the technology of precision guided munitions has increased rapidly. We have witnessed bombs being guided into their targets by lasers, GPS, and even a human watching through a camera on the nose of the weapon. Once the concept of precision guidance was no longer a novelty, the virtuous auspices of limiting collateral damage and economic efficiency have led military planners and weapons designers to push the envelope of precision weapon technology even further.

During the Desert Storm era, the smallest precision bombs available packed 500 lb high-explosive warheads, and the 500 pounder was typically used on only the smallest of targets. They certainly were precise enough on surgical targeting, but the massive explosion and pressure wave still causes widespread devastation to buildings and well, people, that are in the vicinity of the blast. Now I’m not saying that it’s ever goign to be possible to truly eliminate collateral damage, but I believe technology has reached a stopping point concerning precision-guided air-launched munitions. It’s not as if limiting collateral damage is such a bad thing after all; so I guess we can go ahead and bestow the honorable hallmark characteristic of the next wave of precision munitions: Efficiency…because accuracy is a given.

Fresh on the block is the new GBU-39 Small Diameter Bomb. The GBU-39 is the first 250 lb class precision guided munition, and is not only intended to allow the pilot to strike more targets per sortie, but also to -you guessed it- limit collateral damage. A full rack of GBU-39s, 4 bombs total, can easily take the place of one 2000 lb GBU 109 “bunker buster” guided bomb on typical strike platforms such as theF-15C or F-22 Raptor. While the 2000 lb GBU-109 penetrator definitely retains its place as a select weapon of choice for large and hardended targets, the GBU-39 surpasses the GBU-39 in many different realms of performance. For starters, the GBU-39 also has significant stand-off capabilities. With it’s guidance wings, the bomb can coast into targets from far greater ranges than the GBU-109, from more than 40 nautical miles out. Likewise, the design of the warhead also allows the
Small Diameter Bomb to achieve the same penetration capabilities of it’s much larger 2000 lb counterpart. All in all, the SMB GBU-39 allows for a great amount of flexibility for whomever is designing strike missions for an urban environment.

Not only does the GBU-39 Small Diameter Bomb limit it’s size to only 250 lbs, it also can be fitted with different types of warheads, one of which is specially designed to limit the blast radius and shockwave of the explosion. This new explosive is called D.I.M.E., short for Dense Inert Metal Explosive. DIME explosives basically combine a powder of inert metals–inert means that the metal is resistant to chemical reactions–into the explosive, which essentially weighs down the blast. The explosive ignites, but the metal powder will only fly so far before air resistance and gravity will slow it down. DIME explosives are proven to limit the blast radius of explosions, but they are also notorious for the effects that they can have on personnel. Decapitations, dismemberments, and even cancer later down the line caused by the imbedded metal powder are all facts of life when DIME is deployed. i guess the counter-point is that those folks were at the wrong place at the wrong time, especially under the known threat of air raids.

Fast forward to Israel’s Operation Cast Lead against the Hamas regime in Gaza, and you’ve got the exact scenario where this weapon is intended to be used. A crowded urban environment, where military targets are amorphous among the civilian landscape, and limiting collateral damage is essential to maintaining some semblance of self-restraint, saw small diameter bombs being deployed in large numbers. Indeed, reports have come out of Gaza of people suffering the effects of DIME explosives, but the IDF remains deflective about admitting to their use. The use of the GBU-39 that isn’t debated is the penetrator version being deployed against the smuggling tunnels at the Rafah crossing. The IDF deployed multiple GBU-39 penetetrators along the lengths of the tunnels, essentially burying them in successive sections.

AIM-120C AMRAAM "Fire and Forgotten"

There are 3 types of air-to-air missile guidance techniques:
• Semi-Active Homing.
• Active Homing.
• Passive Homing.

Semi-Active Homing Guidance:

Missile relies on an external pointed energy source to ‘illuminate’ the target. The energy reflected by this target is intercepted by a receiver on the missile.
The weapon uses radio energy collected by its radar receiver to determine target trajectory and adjust control surfaces/nozzles to intercept.
The American AIM-7 Sparrow and British Sky flash use this is homing technique.

Active Homing Guidance:

Active homing works like semi-active homing, except that tracking energy is both transmitted-received by the missile itself. No external source is needed. It is this reason that active homing missiles are called “fire-and-forget”.
At longer ranges, called Beyond Visual Range (BVR), these weapons store target information downloaded internally from the launch aircraft - just prior to launch - however can also receive target position updates from launch platform via command-data link (mid course update) data pulse(s) after release.
In this BVR mode, the seeker head goes ‘active’ (awakens) only for the final terminal phase - close to target. The AIM-54, AIM-120 and Vampel R-77 use this ‘fire-and-forget’ homing technique.
Again most modern active homing air-to-air missiles that operate in the radio (radar) spectrum can delineate a noise-jamming signal from their own targeting transmission, and so (can) switch to home on a jamming source coming off a target.

Passive Homing Guidance:
Passive missiles instead rely on some form of energy that is transmitted or emitted by the target. Weopon only receives signals and cannot transmit. This includes short range heat-seeking Infrared (IR) class like American AIM-9 Sidewinder and Russian Vympel R-27 the medium range Vympel R-77T, and radio homing ‘anti-radiation’ missiles like AGM-88 HARM in the SEAD (Suppression of Enemy Air Defense) role - used against SAM radar systems.
Although anti-radiation typically is used against enemy radar sites, other types
of radio transmissions, including communication radios can also be targeted in this manner.

- Now enter DRFM Jamming -
Digital Radio Frequency Memory (DRFM) is an electronic method for digitally capturing and retransmitting (reproducing) an RF signal. The DRFM technique ‘snoops’ and digitizes the received signals, stores it in memory, then when needed, replicates and retransmits.

Because it’s a ‘copy’ of the original signal, the attacking transmitting radar will not be able to distinguish its legitimate original return signal from the DRFM ‘copy’. Neither does DRFM generate and transmit radio jamming noise, so the ‘home-on-noise-jamming’ used by current weopons - is useless.
The real twist with DRFM, is that slight variations in frequency (phase) can be retransmitted (imbedded) by the more powerful DRFM jam signal, to create Doppler (velocity) error in the attackers receiver/seeker head. The attacking weapon may not (or can not) resolve these more powerful “false” signals (in time), the weapon will fly wide of the target – and so is defeated.

These type of DRFM signal reproduction can include snooping/creating/retransmitting distorted phase signals to confuse attacking aircraft main radar sets as well.
Core issues for DRFM may be:• Any radio-spectrum transmission can be snooped including: beeps, squawks, data-links and digitized radio communications.• DRFM would not be effective in the Infrared (IR) EM spectrum.• DRFM increases need for robust Within Visual Range (WVR) capability.• DRFM may require offering aircrews more than one type of homing technique for BVR, similar to say Vympel R-77 plus Vympel R-77T usage model.
DFRM is used on new aircraft entering service as well as being able to be fitted to existing legacy platforms (F-15, F-16 & F-18) via pods. This could be one reason that stealth is effectively absent on Grippen, Typhoon and Rafael?

Ultra-long range air breathing weapons with fully passive wide-band EM-spectrum homing (anti-radiation/emission) might be the few options remaining for BVR?
If DFRM has indeed turned the radio spectrum of the battlefield upside down, then gun-sights using IRST rather than radar might soon be an essential part of Future Firepower.

Supersonic Radio-Spectrum Airfoils

Combat fighters are all tasked, given sufficient combat persistence, to: search, locate, target, interrogate (IFF), coordinate, maneuver and employ weapons - against other aerial objects.

This is a vastly different mission than that of bomber, strike, observation or reconnaissance, which are free to exploit ‘avoidance’ - at all costs.
If the primary targeting/engagement sensor uses the same radio electromagnetic spectrum that a fighter platform is designed to conceal/defeat - could this not incur inherent aerial object (target) detect issue(s) under some/all/specific operational conditions?
The mechanics of ones own radar return signals passing freely (being transmitted then being received) back and forth thru the nose of a radio-spectrum-defeating barrier, (stealth) opposed to an aerodynamic defeating barrier, (a traditional conical nose shape) – is an engineering problem that should not be understated?

According to publicly available information, the F-117 did not possess or employ a radar. The B2 uses synthetic-aperture-class radar for ground detail. By the USAF Association own assertions, the AIM-120 engagement ranges seem to fall well within the detect range envelope, of modern (non radio spectrum) infra-red search and track (IRST) systems?
Air-to-air missile ranges have historically been ‘extended’ by the launch aircraft accelerating into a supersonic ‘dash’ - to give launch weapons more energy at weapon release - to push.
Sustained supersonic flight generates aerodynamic airframe heating due to atmospheric friction (like NASA Space Shuttle during reentry). An aircraft must be designed to operate and function under very high temperatures. Lockheed’s SR-71 Blackbird could fly continuously at Mach 3.1 while portions of its airframe radiated temperatures of ~ 315°C (600°F) - at altitude.
Both the Lockheed F-117 and Northrop B2, are subsonic platforms with non-afterburning, (non-reheat) engines.
To date there has been no responses (built in any known quantities similar) to F-117, B2 or F-22? Wind of an F-117 Nighthawk program must have been known by international intelligence agencies by say - the end of the Ronald Reagan’s first term?
Fighter aircraft with internal weapons that cannot expose (articulate its missiles) to the airstream, to provide unobstructed fields-of-view for missile seeker heads – may have disadvantages in the modern-future: IRST/DRFM/helmet
-sighting, air-combat arena?

Remember, even if they see you – they still have to hit you.
The use of plasma technologies have been discussed and possibly tested now for several years. The inherent problem here is - by inducing a high-energy plasma to control opponent radar mechanics; the plasma itself creates it own host of electromagnetic (EM) emissions

Thursday, April 2, 2009

Latest XM25 Airburst Weapons System

The XM-25 Air Burst Assault Weapon is the air burst portion of the XM29, Integrated Air Burst Weapon. The XM-25 dramatically increases Soldier survivability, standoff and versatility. The air burst weapon provides the Soldier with a 300-500% increase in hit probability to defeat point, area and defilade targets out to approximately 500 meters. The XM-25 weapon includes revolutionary high explosive air bursting munitions and an integrated, multifunctional, all environment, full-solution target acquisition / fire control system. The XM25 25mm Airburst Weapons System provides the infantry soldier with a decisive overmatch capability in a next-generation weapon system that will dramatically increase lethality, range and capability through the use of a family of munitions consisting of thermobaric, high explosive air bursting (HEAB) ammunition.

The XM25 fires 25mm high explosive airbursting (HEAB) munitions. The XM25 incorporates a target acquisition/fire control that integrates thermal, powered direct-view optics, laser rangefinder, compass, fuze setter, ballistic processor, and internal display. The XM25 has a 300-meter range point target and 500-meter range area target capable of defeating defilade (hidden) targets. Spiral development of the XM29 will accelerate fielding of the XM25 subsystem in advance of the dual barrel system. Development of the XM25 will maximize commonality of parts and share the same logistics and supportability resources of the XM29.

The XM25 is equipped with a ballistic computer, thermal sights and zoom capabilities. The XM25 incorporates a target acquisition/fire control that integrates thermal powered direct view optics, laser rangefinder, compass, fuze setter, ballistic processor, and internal display. The XM25 has a 500-meter range against point targets and 500-700-meter range against area targets, and is capable of defeating defilade (hidden) targets.
Ideal for urban combat, the XM25 puts precision firepower in the hands of the Soldier, allows him or her to eliminate threats without causing significant collateral damage. The XM25 fires a High-Explosive (HE), air-bursting 25mm round capable of defeating an enemy behind a wall, inside a building or in a foxhole. Weighing in at less than 12 pounds, the XM25 incorporates a target acquisition fire control that integrates thermal-powered, direct-view optics, laser range-finder, compass, fuse setter, ballistic processor and internal display. As the round flies downrange to the target, it precisely measures the barometric pressure, temperature and velocity of the projectile to a computer chip in the round so that it detonates at exactly the right moment to deliver maximum effectiveness. The XM25 is five times more lethal at the M203 maximum range and continues to provide lethality well beyond the M203's maximum ability, giving Soldiers a 300- to 500-percent increase in hit probability, according to weapon specifications.

The XM25 Assault Weapon is the air burst portion of the XM29, Integrated Air Burst Weapon. The XM25 Air Burst Assault Weapon dramatically increases Soldier survivability, standoff and versatility. The air burst weapon provides the Soldier with a 300-500% increase in hit probability to defeat point, area and defilade targets out to approximately 500 meters. The XM25 weapon includes revolutionary high explosive air bursting munitions and an integrated, multifunctional, all environment, full-solution target acquisition / fire control system. This system supports the Current to Future transition path of the Transformation Campaign Plan (TCP).

Alliant Techsystems (Plymouth, MN) Brashear L3, (Pittsburgh, PA) and Heckler & Koch Gmbh (Oberdorf, Germany) are working in conjunction with PM Soldier Weapons to develop the XM25. The XM25 Air Burst Assault Weapon will reach Milestone B in FY 2005. The System Development and Demonstration (SDD) phase will complete development of the XM25 weapon system and verify training solution for the Milestone C approval in FY 2008.

PAC-3 land-to-air missile interceptors

The most important feature of this new Patriot system, however, will be a completely new missile, a variant of the Lockheed Martin ERINT (Extended Range Interceptor) commonly called PAC-3 (which is a bit confusing because the earlier PAC-3 configuration systems don't use this missile). The PAC-3 missile is highly optimized for the anti-missile role (employing a hit-to-kill capability enhanced by a fragmentation warhead), so that operational PAC-3 Patriot units will be equipped eventually with both MIM-104 and PAC-3 missiles. The latter is significantly smaller than an MIM-104, so that 16 missiles instead of four can be carried in a single launch station. ERINT was first flight-tested in 1992, and selected as the ultimate PAC-3 missile in 1994. The PAC-3/ERINT integration tests took place from 1995 to 1997, and the missile is currently in LRIP (Low Rate Initial Production) status. The PAC-3 missile was also selected as the missile component of the joint US/European MEADS (Medium Extended Air Defense System).

Japan Ground Self-Defense Force personnel stands near PAC-3, land-to-air missile, set up at a base amid the Democratic People's Republic of Korea's planned rocket launch in Akita, northern Japan, Tuesday, March 31, 2009. Batteries of PAC-3 land-to-air missile interceptors have been sent to two northern prefectures that the Democratic People's Republic of Korea's rocket is expected to fly over.

South Korea deployed 1st Aegis destroyer King Sejong

King Sejong, South Korea's first Aegis destroyer, is seen in Busan Navy Base, South Korea, Dec. 22, 2008. South Korea deployed the nation's first Aegis destroyer King Sejong on Monday. The 7,600-ton destroyer, with a crew of 300, is 166 meters long, 21 meters wide and has the world's top class anti-ship, anti-aircraft and anti-submarine capabilities.

King Sejong, South Korea's first Aegis destroyer, is seen in Busan Navy Base, South Korea, Dec. 22, 2008. South Korea deployed the nation's first Aegis destroyer King Sejong on Monday. The 7,600-ton destroyer, with a crew of 300, is 166 meters long, 21 meters wide and has the world's top class anti-ship, anti-aircraft and anti-submarine capabilities.